**DESIGN OF COOLING TOWER**

# DESIGN DESTINATION

## Sunday, 12 June 2016

## Saturday, 11 June 2016

##
** ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE PIPE**

**Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a computer-based numerical technique for calculating the**

**strength and behaviour of engineering structures. It can be used to calculate deflection, stress,**

**vibration, buckling behaviour and many other phenomena. It also can be used to analyze either**

**small or large-scale deflection under loading or applied displacement. It uses a numerical**

**technique called the finite element method (FEM).**

**In finite element method, the actual continuum is represented by the finite elements. These**

**elements are considered to be joined at specified joints called nodes or nodal points. As the**

**actual variation of the field variable (like displacement, temperature and pressure or velocity)**

**inside the continuum is not known, the variation of the field variable inside a finite element is**

**approximated by a simple function. The approximating functions are also called as interpolation**

**models and are defined in terms of field variable at the nodes. When the equilibrium equations**

**for the whole continuum are known, the unknowns will be the nodal values of the field variable.**

## Sunday, 10 April 2016

**DESIGN OF INDUSTRIAL TROLLEY**

**A common approach to the design of material handling systems is to consider material handling as a cost to be minimized. This approach may be the most appropriate in many situations because, while**

**material handling**

**can add real value to a product, it is usually difficult to identify and quantify the benefits associated with**

**material handling**

**; it is much easier to identify and quantify the costs of**

**material handling**

**(e.g., the cost of**

**material handling**

**equipment, the cost of indirect**

**material handling**

**labor, etc.). Once the design of a production process (exclusive of**

**material handling**

**considerations) is completed, alternate**

**material handling**

**designs are generated, each of which satisfies the**

**material handling**

**requirements of the production process. The least cost**

**material handling**

**design is then selected.**

**The appropriateness of the use of**

**material handling**

**cost as the sole criterion to select a**

**material handling**

**design depends on the degree to which the other aspects of the production process are able to be changed. If a completely new facility and production process is being designed, then the total cost of production is the most appropriate criterion to use in selecting a**

**material handling**

**—the lowest cost**

**material handling**

**may not result in the lowest total cost of production. If it is too costly to even consider changing the basic layout of a facility and the production process, then**

**material handling**

**cost is the only criterion that need be considered. In practice, it is difficult to consider all of the components of total production cost simultaneously, even if a new facility and production process is being designed. Aspects of the design that have the largest impact on total cost are at some point fixed and become constraints with respect to the remaining aspects of the design**

## Sunday, 3 April 2016

**Analysis of a Plate with Critical Point of Max. and Min**

Any device or object that is designed and manufactured is expected to operate as advertised over a
stated length of time. If the product does not function as expected then it is considered a failure. Failure can have many reasons. Failure is usually associated with reliability - the expression of
confidence that the product will deliver on its expectation. Failure also has a practical side effect which is best attributed to Taguchi :”When a product fails, you
must replace it or fix it. In either case, you must track it, transport it, and apologize for it. Losses will be
much greater than the costs of manufacture, and none of this expense will necessarily recoup the loss
to your reputation”. Failure is serious business and designing for actual failure is impossible because of so many
variables. Instead we try and ensure that the design meets the Failure Criteria. There is no unique
criteria and the designer usually satisfies the failure criteria that is appropriate for the type of the
product and its underlying design. Many failure criteria are based on principal stresses rather than the standard engineering stress and
strain. Since we can calculate the principal stress form the value of the engineering stress and strain
at every point, we examine some of the popular failure criteria. Prior to application of such criteria we
should also consider the fact that if the design is stretched beyond the elastic domain then the residual
strain on the structure changes the design forever. If the bridge does not return back to its original
state it is likely to cause additional problems in many ways

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